Grab Me Up: Development of Hand Skills in Children

Posted by on May 25, 2015 in Swavalamban Blog

Fine motor skills are the coordination of small muscle movements which occur e.g., in the fingers, usually in coordination with the eyes. In application to motor skills of hands (and fingers) the term dexterity is commonly used.
The abilities which involve the use of hands develop over time, starting with primitive gestures such as grabbing at objects to more precise activities that involve precise eye–hand coordination.

child playing with shapes

child playing with shapes

 

 

Fine motor skills are skills that involve a refined use of the small muscles controlling the hand, fingers, and thumb. The development of these skills allows one to be able to complete tasks such as writing, drawing, and buttoning.

As children refine their motor skills, they are able to communicate by written expression, starting off with scribbling and moving on to printing and writing.

 

Lets take a brief summary of development of hand grasp:

 

In infants (age 0 to 3 months), the Hands most often remain closed
has grasp reflex (grasps objects involuntarily if placed in palm)

 

child's hand remain closed

child’s hand remain closed

 

As the infants reaches 2-4 months , he/she reaches for (“swipes at”) objects inaccurately.

 

child tries to reaches at objects

child tries to reaches at objects

 

From 3 – 6 months, the child Clasps hands together often, begins purposeful, visually directed reaching and can hold small objects in hand.

 

child clasps hand, can hold objects

child clasps hand, can hold objects

From 4-8 months, a child can transfer objects from one hand to the other, can pick up cube/medium sized object easily.The child develops accurate forward and side reach.

 

child can transfer objects from 1 hand to another

child can transfer objects from 1 hand to another

 

From 5 months onward , child “rakes” or “scoops” small objects to pick them up (i.e. using fingers/palm/whole hand to scoop up Cheerios, raisins etc.
As the child reaches 7 months, he/she intentionally able to drop/release objects and able to pick up small objects using thumb and finger/fingers. He/she also started  pointing with index finger.

 

child develops forward reach, can hold objects

child develops forward reach, can hold objects

From 12 onward, child is capable of holding crayon with whole hand, thumb up.

 

child achieves trunk balance, manipulates objects

child achieves trunk balance, manipulates objects

As he/she attains the age of 2 years ,he/she holds crayon with thumb and all fingers, forearm turned so thumb is pointing down
puts on shoes, socks, and shorts; takes off shoes and socks
can use a spoon by himself, keeping it upright
can draw and copy a vertical line.

 

child explores new areas

child explores new areas

Accuracy and speed will significantly began to develop in between 2 – 3 years. Now, the child strings large beads, snips paper with scissors, rolls clay/play-doh into “snake”, can draw and copy a horizontal line.

From 3 years onward, the child will also able to complete simple puzzles, can build a tower of nine small blocks or more, can get himself dressed/undressed independently; only needs help with buttons; still confuses front/back for clothes, and right/left for shoes
can feed himself with little or no spilling, drinks from a cup/glass with one hand.

 

child begins constructive play

child begins constructive play

From 4 years, a child can pour his own drink from a pitcher if not too heavy, can place small pegs into small holes, able to string small beads, can hold a pencil with a “tripod grasp” (3 fingers), but moves forearm and wrist to write/draw/color.

child solving simple puzzle

child solving simple puzzle

 

From 4 1/2 to 5 years, child can use scissors to follow and cut both straight and curved lines, can manage buttons, zippers, and snaps completely, can draw and copy a cross (one vertical and one horizontal intersecting lines).

 

child able to draw n color

child able to draw n color

 

From 5 years onward, the child can hold fork using his fingers, can feed him soup with little or no spilling, folds paper in half, making sure the edges meet, puts a key in a lock and opens it.

 

child gains accuracy n precision in hand skills

child gains accuracy n precision in hand skills

 

The development of Hand Skill is a fascinating process, as every single day the child will learn new ways to explore his/her surrounding world.

 

Dr. P Pathak

Managing Director @SwavalambanRehab

 

 

F
F
Twitter
swavalambanrehb on Twitter
59 people follow swavalambanrehb
Twitter Pic devon_ch Twitter Pic Supitapi Twitter Pic coordown Twitter Pic margheri Twitter Pic FronRobe Twitter Pic Tweet_Mo
F
F
F
pinterest button
error: Content is protected !!