Pediatric Disorders or Childhood Disorders are any illness, impairment or abnormal condition that affects primarily infants and children, those are in the age span that begins with the fetus and extends through adolescence.
Childhood is a period typified by change, both in the child and in the immediate environment. Changes in the child related to growth and development are striking as they pass through the stages of infancy childhood and adolescence.
Diagnosis of the diseases of childhood involves special considerations and techniques; for example, in evaluating genetic disorders, not only the patient but his entire family may need to be examined. In apparent environmental causes of diseases, such as poisonings, must be considered and investigated thoroughly, by methods that at times resemble those of a detective. Diseases of the fetus may derive directly from disorders of the mother or may be caused by drugs administered to her.
Chromosomal and biochemical studies at various stages of development may help to anticipate problems in the postnatal period; they may indicate the need for immediate treatment of the fetus by such techniques as blood transfusion; or they may lead to the decision to terminate pregnancy because serious, untreatable disease has been recognized. Other specialized techniques permit examination of the fetus by X-ray and ultrasound, and by electrocardiography and electroencephalography various periods of growth
In examination of the infant and development differ so markedly from one another, they are divided for convenience into the following stages: intrauterine (the period before birth), neonatal (first four weeks), infant (first year), preschool (one to five years), early school (six to 10 years for girls, six to 12 for boys), prepubescent (10 to 12 for girls, 12 to 14 for boys), and adolescent (12 to 18 for girls, 14 to 20 for boys).
Physical Development (0 to 6 months)
- Visual focus matures – follows objects with eyes.
- Learns to localize sounds and turns to see.
- Gains control of hands – learns to bat, then reach and grasp objects.
- Discovers feet – brings feet to mouth and explores with feet.
- Begins to sit with support.
- Large muscle play may include rolling, scooting, rocking, bouncing.
- Explores world with eyes and ears and begins to explore with hands and feet and mouth.
- Enjoys creating effects in the environment by own actions.
- Begins to recognize familiar people, objects and even events – then to anticipate them.
- Becomes aware of novelty and strangeness in people, objects and events.
- Develops definite preferences for certain people, objects and events.
- May imitate simple movements if in own repertoire.
- Does one thing at a time.
- Special interest in people (faces and voices especially).
- Begins to smile at faces, voices and mirror image.
- Quits crying when sees face or hears voice.
- Begins to seek attention and contact with people.
- Distinguishes among familiar people and has preferences.
- Begins to coo and gurgle, babble and laugh aloud, play with sounds.
- Listens to voices and may imitate sounds already in own repertoire.
Toddler’s Physical Development (12-23 months)
- Endless exercise of physical skills.
- Likes to lug, dump, push, pull, pile, knock down, empty and till.
- Likes to climb – can manage small indoor steps.
- Manipulation is more exploratory than skillful.
- Active interest in multiple small objects.
- By 2 years, can kick, catch a large ball.
- By 2 years, can string large heads, turn knob
Toddler’s Mental Development
- Interest in causing effects.
- Interest in mechanisms and objects that move or can he moved-prefers action toys.
- Combines objects with other objects – makes simple block structures, uses simple stacking toys, does simple puzzles.
- Very curious – constant experimentation with objects.
- Interest in hidden-object toys.
- At 1 1/2 to 2 years, groups/matches similar objects – enjoys simple sorting toys.
- Identifies objects by pointing – can identify pictures in book.
- Enjoys water, sand play.
- Makes marks on paper, scribbles spontaneously.
- First imitative play – imitation of adult tasks, especially caretaking and housekeeping tasks.
Toddler’s Social Development
- Most solitary play – relates to adults better than to children.
- Tries to do adult tasks.
- Expresses affection for others – shows preference for certain soft toys, dolls.
- Likes being read to, looking at picture books, likes nursery rhymes.
- By 1 1/2, enjoys interactive games such as tag.
Preschool Physical Development (3 to 5 years)
- Runs, jumps, climbs, balances with assurance – by 5, gross motor skills are well developed.
- Likes risks, tests of physical strength and skill – loves acrobatics and outdoor equipment.
- Increasing finger control – can pick up small objects, cut on a line with scissors, hold pencil in adult grasp, string small beads (Most children in this age group can begin using toys with smaller components. If child is still mouthing objects, select toys without small parts.)
- Expert builder – loves small construction materials and also vigorous activity with big blocks, large construction materials.
- By 5, rudimentary interest in ball games with simple rules and scoring.
Preschool Mental Development
- Familiar with common shapes, primary colors.
- Interest in simple number activities, alphabet play, copying letters, matching/sorting.
- By 5, sorts and matches using more than one quality at a time.
- Around 4, begins to be purposeful and goal directed, to make use of a plan.
- Interest in producing designs, including puzzles, and in constructing play worlds.
- First representational pictures.
- Prefers realism.
- Interest in nature, science, animals, time, how things work.
- Peak interest in dramatic play – recreates adult occupations, uses costumes and props.
Preschool Social Development
- Beginning to share and take turns, learning concept of fair play.
- By 5, play is cooperative, practical, conforming.
- Interested in group pretend play.
- Not ready for competitive play because hates to lose.
- Enjoys simple board games based on chance, not strategy.
- More sex differentiation in play roles, interests.
- Enjoys looking at books and listening to stories from books.