डिप्रेशन इन चिल्ड्रन : अवसाद और उसके लक्षण
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity.
Depression in childhood is similar to adult major depressive disorder and exhibit increased irritability or aggressive and self-destructive behavior, rather than sadness associated with adult forms of depression.
Children who are under stress, experience loss, or have attention, learning, behavioral, or anxiety disorders are at a higher risk for depression.
Causes of Depression:
1. Depression usually isn’t caused by one event or reason, but is usually the result of several factors. Causes vary from person to person.
2. Depression in children can be caused by any combination of factors that relate to physical health, life events, family history, environment, genetic vulnerability and biochemical disturbance.
3. Depression can be caused by lowered levels of neurotransmitters.
4. Genetics: someone with a close relative who has depression may be more likely to experience it.
5. Chronic illness can contribute to depression, as can the side effects of certain medicines or infections
डिप्रेशन या अवसाद बच्चो में भी होता है, इस समस्या से पीड़ित बच्चे में निम्लिखित लक्षण दिखाई देते है :
१. बच्चे के दैनिक क्रियाओ में परिवर्तन आना
२. सामाजिक मेल-जोल की कमी होना
३. दोस्तों से कम बात करना
४. ज्यादातर समय अकेले गुमसुम होकर बैठे रहना
५. भूख कम लगना या फिर बहुत ज़्यादा खाना
६. किसी भी काम में मन नहीं लगना
७. पढाई में पिछड़ना
८. निराशावादी बातें करना
९. बात बात में रोना
१०. बहुत कम बोलना
११. खेल और अन्य मनोरंजक गतिविधियों में रूचि कम होना
१२. आत्मविश्वास में कमी होना
१३. नकारात्मक बातें करना
१४. ध्यान केंद्रित नहीं कर पाना
१५. व्यव्हार में चिड़चिड़ापन, गुस्सा या घबराहट होना
१६. नींद में कमी होना या फिर ज़्यादा देर तक सोना
१७. हमेशा थका हुआ प्रतीत होना
१८. रिस्क लेने वाले काम करना
१९. मृत्यु सम्बन्धी बातें करना
When a depressive state, or mood, lingers for a long time — weeks, months, or even longer — and limits a person’s ability to function normally, it can be diagnosed as depression.
Symptoms of Depression must be present for longer than 2 weeks:
• feelings of hopelessness
• low self-esteem
• sleeping too much or being unable to sleep
• extreme fatigue
• difficulty concentrating
• lack of appetite or overeating
• a feeling of being down in the dumps or really sad for no reason
• a lack of energy, feeling unable to do the simplest task
• an inability to enjoy the things that used to bring pleasure
• a lack of desire to be with friends or family members
• feelings of irritability (especially common in kids and teens), anger, or anxiety
• an inability to concentrate
• a marked weight gain or loss (or failure to gain weight as expected), and too little or too much interest in eating
• a significant change in sleep habits, such as trouble falling asleep or getting up
• feelings of guilt or worthlessness
• aches and pains even though nothing is physically wrong
• a lack of caring about what happens in the future
• frequent thoughts about death or suicide
Types of depression in children :
1. major depression
3. adjustment disorder with depressed mood
4. seasonal affective disorder
5. bipolar disorder or manic depression
1. Pharmacological Intervention
Several classes of antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), heterocyclics (eg, amoxapine, maprotiline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), bupropion, venlafaxine, and nefazodone, have been used in the treatment of depression.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
These are a relatively new group of medicines used to treat emotional and behavioral problems, including depression, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia, and posttraumatic stress disorder in adults. These medications are beginning to be used to treat the same problems in children and adolescents. Serotonin is a chemical that exists naturally in the brain. The SSRIs increase brain serotonin to reference range levels.
SSRIs include, but are not limited to, the following medications: fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, and fluvoxamine.
2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
CBT is a type of talk therapy that has been scientifically shown to be effective in treating anxiety disorders. CBT teaches skills and techniques to child to reduce anxiety.
3. Acceptance and commitment therapy
ACT uses strategies of acceptance and mindfulness (living in the moment and experiencing things without judgment) as a way to cope with unwanted thoughts, feelings, and sensations.
4. Dialectical behavioral therapy
DBT emphasizes taking responsibility for one’s problems and helps children examine how they deal with conflict and intense negative emotions.
5. Psychotherapies eg, individual, family, group therapies
6.Social skills training
7. Educational assessment and planning
Depression is not a sign of weakness. Any person at one or the other time in his/her life will feel low.
Depression can be cured completely.
All it needs is your love, support, care and understanding.
Let’s Beat It…
Dr. P Pathak